Humans Homo sapiens are a species of highly intelligent primates. They are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina and—together with chimpanzeesgorillasand orangutans —are part of the family Hominidae the great apesor hominids.
Humans are terrestrial animalscharacterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion ; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals ; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications ; larger, more complex brains than other primates; and highly advanced and organized societies. Several early hominins used fire and occupied much of Eurasia.
Early modern humans are thought to have diverged in Africa from an earlier hominin aroundyears ago, with the earliest fossil evidence of Homo sapiens also appearing aroundyears ago in Africa. Humans began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity at least by about ,—75, years ago and possibly earlier. In several waves of migrationH. The spread of the large and increasing population of humans has profoundly affected the biosphere and millions of species worldwide.
Among the key advantages that explain this evolutionary success is the presence of a larger, well-developed brainwhich enables advanced abstract reasoninglanguageproblem solvingsocialityand culture through social learning. Humans use tools more frequently and effectively than any other animal: they are the only extant species to build fires, cook foodclothe themselves, and create and use numerous other technologies and arts.
Humans uniquely use systems of symbolic communication such as language and art to express themselves and exchange ideas, as well as to organize themselves into purposeful groups. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to political states.Taccuino in inglese traduzione
Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of values, social normsand ritualswhich together undergird human society. Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena have motivated humanity's development of sciencephilosophymythologyreligionand other fields of knowledge.
Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societiesmany human societies transitioned to sedentary agriculture approximately 10, years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus enabling the growth of civilization.
These human societies subsequently expanded, establishing various forms of government and culture around the world, and unifying people within regions to form states and empires. The rapid advancement of scientific and medical understanding in the 19th and 20th centuries permitted the development of more efficient medical tools and healthier lifestyles, resulting in increased lifespans and causing the human population to rise exponentially.
The global human population is about 7. Although it can be applied to other members of the genus Homoin common usage the word "human" generally refers to the only extant species— Homo sapiens. The definition of H. Some paleoanthropologists include fossils that others have allocated to different species, while the majority assign only fossils that align anatomically with the species as it exists today.
The native English term man can refer to the species generally a synonym for humanity as well as to human males.Synonym s : encephalizationtelencephalization.
Increase in the ratio of brain mass to body mass during the evolution of a species or other taxonomic group. Higher degrees of encephalization are generally correlated with higher degrees of intelligence. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Segen's Medical Dictionary. Mentioned in? References in periodicals archive? Brain volume of the newly-discovered species Rhynchocyon udzungwensis Mammalia: Afrotheria: Macroscelidea : implications for encephalization in sengis.
Lee, "Ecology and energetics of encephalization in hominid evolution," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, vol. The natural science underlying big history. Body size, body proportions and encephalization in a middle Pleistocene archaic human from Northern China.
Acetabulum: a morphometric study. In the first-ever comprehensive analysis of its kind, a study guided by psychologist Lori Marino used computed tomography to investigate the pattern of encephalization in some fossil cetacean species in the past 47 million years, and analyzed these data along with those for some modern species.
Declaring whales' rights. This led to a measure called the encephalization quotient eQ that permitted a comparison across species of actual, observed brain sizes versus those that would be predicted purely on the basis of body size. Four Awakenings to Compassion. This and progressively increasing brain size encephalization in hominids led to the present human obstetrical dilemma: larger offspring with larger brains in the presence of a narrow pelvis that favors Bipedalism.
Medicine in the 21st century: towards a Darwinian medical epistemology. The pattern of human evolution: studies on bipedalism, mastication and encephalization. Annu Rev Anthro. Biologia evolutiva y psicologia evolucionista. Complex adaptations tend to evolve gradually Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker; and Williamsand the trend toward encephalization is no exception.
Information is the stuff of narrative. This process, known as encephalizationrequired changes in diet and physiology as such big brains need higher quality food such as meat. Breaking the time barrier: Clive Gamble revisits the moment at which archaeologists realized that human prehistory was far longer than biblical scholars had imagined; and links this to today's debates about the antiquity of the human mind with its capacity for self-aware thought.
In this example of " encephalization of function" Jackson ; Ferrier ; Karten ; Aboitiz ; Striedter motor operations are increasingly "taken over" by cortex as the size of the pyramidal tract overtakes that of the descending striatal system. Engines of the brain: the computational instruction set of human cognition.Besides that, the perception and treatment of Africa and its inhabitants are very different between the two novels.
However, its effects on the world have been felt.
More shrines were continued to be built in order to hold additional sacred items. World Religions Essay Topics - Chapter Summary Our chapter provides a wide variety of thought-provoking essay prompts on different world religion topics. Then the religion isn 't just a believe but rather a way of life. The three religions believe that God created the univ… I choose Hinduism it is one of the hardest and complex religion to understand.
Both religions have similar beliefs. The nations that these two religions span from are also different, as Christianity originates from the Middle East, while Buddhism originates from India.Blighted ovum hormone levels
In this all living creatures, human beings have classified themselves as one of the most intelligent and well developed than others. Other minor groups originate from the five primary groups of the world religion.
Understanding Different Religions. This post contains a list of excellent topics, questions, and ideas for such essays. They also both believe in God and Jesus. Those two religions interested me to know about their places, the services, and worship, Whether it was the beliefs, or how their people carried themselves that attracted you to the religion you currently believe in, something caught your attention and in turn you got curious.
Before Singapore broke away from Malaysia on the 9th of August… The religion that we are going to be exploring and know the way of their life is Buddhism. Veterans college application essay english essay titles leaving cert write an essay my last day at school, essay topics for class 3 and 4 essay Respect for religions all. All the religions differ from each other; the beliefs, the rituals, the holidays.
Some of the Christians Jerusalem is a sacred city for three religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Essay on the farmer in english apa research paper on ptsd short Write on different india essay in a religions childhood obesity causes and effects essay, case study managing for total quality of logistics services in the supply These qualities are what make each religion different and special.
Professor C. Givens For example, the question has been raised whether science and religion give the same kind of knowledge, thus competing with one another. We have seen that Judaism large like Islam and Christianity. Because Buddha believed that Buddhism is a way of life, Buddhists often believe that attending a place to worship is not critical. First of all, There are a number of debates about the similarities, some religious figures started to take advantage of their position knowing how devoted people were to the church.
Im a bird species is extinct is a synonym a word that ends in an unfavorable light. Religions also can impact in many ways but can learn about some certain religions to know about more religions. The population of Switzerland is about 7. People worldwide always want something to believe in, and a sense of purpose which they have a tendency to find in one of the collections of religion. These religions all are considered majorly different, however they also share some similar beliefs.
You have no right to tell people of different religions to convert and you are not a priest either.
The two stories are both similar and different in many ways. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers. Some of the beliefs Judaism has are as follows: that you can achieve a moral life through obedience to God's Law and that the Ten Commandments are God's ten key laws.The koala or, inaccurately, koala bear [a] Phascolarctos cinereus is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia.
It is the only extant representative of the family Phascolarctidae and its closest living relatives are the wombatswhich are members of the family Vombatidae. The koala is found in coastal areas of the mainland's eastern and southern regions, inhabiting QueenslandNew South WalesVictoriaand South Australia. It is easily recognisable by its stout, tailless body and large head with round, fluffy ears and large, spoon-shaped nose. Fur colour ranges from silver grey to chocolate brown.
Koalas from the northern populations are typically smaller and lighter in colour than their counterparts further south. These populations possibly are separate subspeciesbut this is disputed.
Koalas typically inhabit open eucalypt woodlands, and the leaves of these trees make up most of their diet.
Because this eucalypt diet has limited nutritional and caloric content, koalas are largely sedentary and sleep up to 20 hours a day. They are asocial animals, and bonding exists only between mothers and dependent offspring. Adult males communicate with loud bellows that intimidate rivals and attract mates.
Males mark their presence with secretions from scent glands located on their chests. Being marsupials, koalas give birth to underdeveloped young that crawl into their mothers' poucheswhere they stay for the first six to seven months of their lives. These young koalas, known as joeysare fully weaned around a year old. Koalas have few natural predators and parasites, but are threatened by various pathogenssuch as Chlamydiaceae bacteria and the koala retrovirus.
Koalas were hunted by Indigenous Australians and depicted in myths and cave art for millennia. The first recorded encounter between a European and a koala was inand an image of the animal was published in by naturalist George Perry.
Botanist Robert Brown wrote the first detailed scientific description of the koala inalthough his work remained unpublished for years. Popular artist John Gould illustrated and described the koala, introducing the species to the general British public. Further details about the animal's biology were revealed in the 19th century by several English scientists.
Because of its distinctive appearance, the koala is recognised worldwide as a symbol of Australia. Koalas are listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The animal was hunted heavily in the early 20th century for its fur, and large-scale cullings in Queensland resulted in a public outcry that initiated a movement to protect the species.
Sanctuaries were established, and translocation efforts moved to new regions koalas whose habitat had become fragmented or reduced. Among the many threats to their existence are habitat destruction caused by agriculture, urbanisation, droughts and associated bushfiressome related to climate change.
The word koala comes from the Dharug gulameaning no water. It was at one time thought, since the animals were not observed to come down from trees often, that they were able to survive without drinking. The leaves of the eucalyptus tree have a high water content, so the koala does not need to drink often. Adopted by white settlers, "koala" became one of several hundred Aboriginal loan words in Australian Englishwhere it has also commonly been used in the alternative form "koala bear", because of the koala's supposed resemblance to a bear.
The specific namecinereusis Latin for "ash coloured". Hypsiprymnodon moschatus. Diprotodon optatum. Zygomaturus trilobus.Sign in. Don't have an account? We weren't able to detect the audio language on your flashcards. Please select the correct language below. Add to folder [? Find out how you can intelligently organize your Flashcards.
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Shuffle Toggle On. Card Range To Study through. Primate Adaptations 3. Arboreal Hypothesis. Stereoscopic vision and grasping hands are adaptations to life in the trees. Visual Predation Hypothesis. Stereoscopic vision and grasping hands are adaptations for catching small insects and moving prey.
Angiosperm Radiation.All rights reserved. These spotted leopards live in the mountains across a vast range of Asia. They are insulated by thick hair—in shades of gray or creamy yellow and covered with grayish black spots—and their wide, fur-covered feet act as natural snowshoes.
Snow leopards have powerful legs and are tremendous jumpers, able to leap as far as 50 feet. These big cats use their long tails for balance and as blankets to cover sensitive body parts against the severe mountain chill.
They are shy and reclusiveand rarely seen in the wild. Snow leopards can be found throughout high mountain ranges, including the Himalayas and the southern Siberian mountains in Russia. They can also be found in the Tibetan Plateau and across a range that stretches from China to the mountains of Central Asia.
They prefer steep, rugged terrain with rocky outcrops where prey can be hard to come by. Snow leopards prey upon the blue sheep bharal of Tibet and the Himalayas, as well as the mountain ibex found over most of the rest of their range.
Though these powerful predators can kill animals three times their weightthey also eat smaller fare, such as marmots, hares, and game birds. One Indian snow leopard, protected and observed in a national park, is reported to have consumed five blue sheep, nine Tibetan woolly hares, 25 marmots, five domestic goats, one domestic sheep, and 15 birds in a single year.
The expansion of human settlement, especially livestock grazing, has led to increased conflict. Herders sometimes kill snow leopards to prevent or retaliate against predation of their domestic animals. Their lives are also threatened by poachingdriven by illegal trades in pelts and in body parts used for traditional Chinese medicine. These cats appear to be in dramatic decline—they've lost at least 20 percent of their population in two decades as a result.
For these reasons, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classifies snow leopards as vulnerable to extinction. In recent years, a concerted effort has begun to save snow leopards. Protected areas have been established throughout their range, including sanctuaries in Afghanistan, Mongolia, and Kyrgyzstan. That said, creating protected areas for these big cats has only helped so much: According to one study40 percent of those protected areas are too small for the wide-roaming snow leopard.
Countries have also been strengthening their enforcement against poaching, and conservation groups work with herders to develop systems to keep snow leopards away from their livestock. Others are building awareness about the important role these big cats play in their environment. As a flagship speciessnow leopards are essentially a mascot for their entire ecosystem: If they survive, so will many of the other species in their habitat. Learn about these felines and how they expertly hunt agile prey.
Animals Photo Ark.
Read Caption. Continue Reading.See more words from the same year Dictionary Entries near cephalization cephalic module cephalin Cephalina cephalization cephalob Cephalobidae Cephalocereus.
Accessed 29 Jan. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for cephalization cephalization. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! What's the difference? We're intent on clearing it up 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? We're gonna stop you right there Literally How to use a word that literally drives some pe Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice?
Do you know these earlier meanings of words? Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something a Login or Register.English to Marathi - Basic English word with Marathi meaning -- English in Marathi -- इंग्रजी शिका -
Save Word. Definition of cephalization. First Known Use of cephalizationin the meaning defined above. Keep scrolling for more. Learn More about cephalization.
Share cephalization Post the Definition of cephalization to Facebook Share the Definition of cephalization on Twitter. Time Traveler for cephalization The first known use of cephalization was in See more words from the same year. Statistics for cephalization Look-up Popularity. More Definitions for cephalization. More from Merriam-Webster on cephalization Britannica.
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Love words? Need even more definitions? Words at Play 'Preposition' and 'Proposition' What's the difference? All About Latin Plurals Check your dictionary. The awkward case of 'his or her'.
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